There are many differences spiritual or otherwise between humans and animals and other living beings. For example:
Self confidence, admiring beauty, appreciation of humour, knowledge of death, perception of time sense, knowledge of understanding, reading and writing words, language(s), knowledge of music, knowledge regarding meaning of life, knowledge of temperature, knowledge of seasonal differences, wearing of dress according to season,capacity to combat the nature by building bridges, dams, etc, ability to build roads, construction of ships, aeroplanes, following certain rules & regulations in regard to marriage, ability to take decisions not as per instinct but by thinking, maintenance of love, affection, universal brotherhood, dress code knowledge, knowledge of taking food according to body conditions, to develop all sort of faculties, to pray God for the well being of other fellow beings, etc., and so many.
Man should cross the stages of human demon, human animal, human human, and become human God. Man to transform into God Kriyayoga meditation is the only way.
When we touch a hot body, immediately we withdraw our hand from that. That is because the skin (touch) receptor receives the message and send it through sensory nerves to Cerebrum. Then the cerebrum sends its order/signal to the respective/related organ to withdraw the hand through the motor nerves. Likewise sight, hearing, olfactory, and taste or gustatory sensory organs will send and receive the required orders/signals from sensory and motor nerves from cerebrum. In most of the cases we without experiencing the situation, without sending and getting orders to and from the cerebrum through sensory and motor nerves, we withdraw from the situation. For ex: not to touch fire, to keep away from the poisionous snakes, scorpium,etc., etc. This clearly indicates that man can get ideas/plans, think about them. That means man undoubtedly is having causal, subtle, and physical minds.
All ideas/plans emanate from cerebrum. As such it is the replica of causal or super conscious mind. For execution of these plans/ideas man is having a energy mind i.e., cerebellum. As such it is the replica of sub conscious mind. For fulfillment of these ideas/plans man is having a practical physical primitive mind i.e., Brain stem. As such it is the replica of conscious mind.
Intuition is the unique and unparalleled gift/boon bestowed to humans by God Almighty. We should not waste this/our human incarnation. So please come one and all. Let us learn Kriyayoga, the ancient science, given to us by our great Rishis (sages). Let us enjoy beatitude through this Kriyayoga sadhana. Let us merge with Almighty God which is our ultimate aim. .
1)Cerebrum, 2) cerebellum, 3)Brain stem, 4) Diencephalon (thalamus and hypothalamus), 5) Limbic system, & 6) Reticular activating system all these constitute the parts/systems of brain.
Now let us discuss briefly about them.
Brain is the most important part of human body. It is home for intelligence. That makes the humans to understand the senses and their respective functions. Brain is the initiator of all body movements. It is encased in a bony cage with protective fluids.
Construction of Brain:
Brain can be divided into three basic units. 1) Fore brain, 2) Mid brain, and 3) Hind brain. All these work together as one unit. Every constituent Brain is having its constituent function.
Hind brain: The upper part of spinal cord, brain stem, and cerebellum together constitutes Hind brain. Breath, Heart beat, movement of sense organs, and to make us to act and react to movements in sports is this Hind brain. This is physical body replica.
Mid brain: uppermost part of brain stem is Mid brain or inner brain. Reflex actions, movement of eyes, and voluntary movements are controlled by Mid brain. This is subtle body replica.
Fore brain: It occupies most of the brain. It is highly developed part. Its structures are the source of intelligent and thought provoking actions. To store the memories, to make the ideas and plans, thoughts, to recognise the people other than him, to read and understand the books, to play and participate in sports and games, the role of Fore brain is unique and outstanding. This is causal body replica.
The cerebrum is split into two halves (hemispheres) by a deep fissure. Through a thick tract of nerve fibres that lie at the base of this fissure, the two hemispheres communicate with each other.
Both hemispheres are mirror images of each other in appearance. But they are different. For example the left hemisphere is capable of forming words, while the right hemisphere control abstract reasoning skills.
Both hemispheres control each other usually. If there is stroke in right hemisphere then the left hemisphere will be subjected to paralysis.
That is the reason Kriyayoga devotees are requested to hear OM sound in right side of the brain.
Language, reasoning and analysis, communications happen in left hemisphere. The analysis of sensory inputs, creativity, sound and vision, and spatial-temporal awareness etc is done in right hemisphere.
There are three bodies. Causal/Idea body(Karana sareera), Astral/subtle body/energy body(sookshma sareera), and Physical body(sthoola/ Bhautika sareera).
Hind brain represents Physical body(sthoola/ Bhautika sareera).
Mid brain represents Astral/subtle body/energy body(sookshma sareera).
Fore brain i.e., Causal/Idea body(Karana sareera).
Fore brain represents Causal/Idea body(Karana sareera).
Fore brain is the source of ideas and plans like Causal/Idea body(Karana sareera). Mid brain is energy body. It is to execute the ideas and plans of Fore brain. Hence it is the organizer. It should have energy to organize the things. The Hind brain is the worker.
Each cerebral hemisphere can be divided into different sections or lobes. Each lobe is destined to do different decisive work.
This is akin to three bodies are divided into five koshas. They are:
1) Annamaya kosha.
2) Pranamaya kosha.
3) Manomaya kosha.
4) Vignaanamaya kosha &
5) Anandamaya kosha.
Physical body(sthoola/ Bhautika sareera) represents Annamaya kosha. In spiritual parlance it is Jada or inert. That is it simply does the given work without the knowledge of its consequences. Here the Hind brain represents Annamaya kosha.
Mid brain(Astral/subtle body/energy body -- sookshma sareera) represents all the three koshas Pranamaya kosha, Manomayakosha, and Vignanamaya kosha. Pranamaya kosha means energy. Prana or life force is nothing but energy only. Manomayakosha means it must have the mind. This kosha is having the mind to do the things. Vignanamayakosha means it must have knowledge of the things it does. This kosha knows what it does.
Fore brain i.e., Causal/Idea body(Karana sareera) represents Anandamaya kosha. Ananda means pleasure of doing the things. Pleasure means not only sexual pleasure, but also other things like reading, enjoying the beauty of Mother Nature, etc., and ultimate spiritual pleasure of finding God.
Remember that only humans are having this faculty.
Two frontal lobes:
They exist on the both sides of forehead and directly behind it. Planning schedule, thinking about future, logical discussions and conclusions, are done in these two frontal lobes.
So this is the replica of Anandamaya kosha.
Motor area is located in the rearmost portion of these lobes. Voluntary movements are controlled with the help of Motor area. A nearby place on the left frontal lobe called Broca’s area allows thoughts to be transformed into words.
Two Parietal lobes: Parietal lobes are located behind frontal lobes. They are like a wall. The front side of two Parietal lobes are just behind motor area part of frontal lobes. Important Primary sensory areas are located in these Parietal lobes. News regarding Temperature, taste, touch, body movements, reading, and Arithmetic functions are received here.
This is replica of Vignaanamaya kosha.
Two Occipetal lobes: Behind the brain there are two Occipetal lobes relating to control of vision. If these are damaged then vision will be impaired. It will compare and connect the images received from the eyes with memory.
This is replica of Manomaya kosha.
Two Temporal lobes: Beneath the two frontal lobes and parietal lobes, temporal lobes are located. They react to music. They receive data through ears. Each temporal lobe lie in front of the visual areas and nest under the parietal and frontal lobes. They receive information from the ears. The underside of each temporal lobe plays a crucial role in forming and retrieving memories, including those associated with music. Other parts of this lobe seem to integrate memories and sensations of taste, sound, sight, and touch.
This is replica of Pranamaya kosha.
Cerebellum: This is the second largest portion of brain. It is located underneath the cerebrum, and behind the brain stem and connected to mid brain. This will have two hemispheres, with an outer cortex consisting of gray matter, and inner cortex of white matter. The outer layer of an organ is called cortex. It will be enquiring each and every movement in the body. It will give the required direction to the muscles.
Plans and Ideas pertain to Cerebrum. Cerebellem is the executor. As such there should be proper integration between both.
Deep within the brain there are certain structures. They are the gatekeepers between the spinal cord and the cerebral hemispheres. These structures not only determine our emotional state, they also modify our perceptions and responses depending on that state, and allow us to initiate movements that you make without thinking about them. Like the lobes in the cerebral hemispheres, these structures come in pairs: each is duplicated in the opposite half of the brain.
It is located just below the Cerebrum and in front of Cerebellum. It joins/connects Cerebrum with Spinal cord. It joins with mid brain, Pons, Diencephalon i.e., Thalamus and Hypothalamus. This brain stem is the most primitive part of the brain. This does several acts for the existence of the body. Ex: breathing, hear beat, blood pressure, etc. It controls vomitings, cough, sneezing, and swallowing. It will make ways to the neuron centres through nerve fibers above and below.
This is replica of Annamaya kosha.
Thalamus and hypothalamus together are called Diencephalon. They are located deep within cerebrum, and in between Cerebrum and mid brain.. Hypothalamus is of the size of a pearl. Thalamus is located near the Hypothalamus. There are four ventricles in the brain. They are cavities filled with fluids. They are connected or adjoined to each other. Cerebro spinal fluid – CSF is made by them. This fluid will reduce the strain or pressure. They distribute the nutrients and collect waste products.
Hypothalamus controls our body temperature, blood sugar, hunger, and harmones.
Thalamus controls our sensory signals. It specially controls the signals that enter the higher fore brain and Cerebral cortex. Thalamus controls motor signals and will not allow to get Cerebral cortex heated up more than required. There will be several pathways that connects brain stem with the motor centres below and with higher ones in the fore brain.
This will help to manifest Intimate behaviours, emotions, hunger, and aggressive behaviour. It will display all the sensory information like a cinema on the Cerebral cortex. Cerebral cortex is located deep within temporal lobe.
Cingulate gyrus, Corpus callosum, Mammillary body, olfactory tract, amygdale, and Hippocampus are all the constituents of Limbic system.
a) Amygdala: it is a mass of almond shaped nuclei. It is located deep within Temporal lobe, Near medial Hypothalamus and adjacent to Hippocampus. It is involved in Emotional display and control, the hormonal secretions and memory.
b) Cingulate gyrus: It is a fold of Brain. It is located above corpus callosum, and in between cingulate sulci--corpus callosum. Cingulate gyrus is involved in sensory impulses. It controls aggressive behaviour. It displays Emotional responses.
c) Fornix: It is a fibrous band of nerve fibres in an arc. Fornix connects hippocampus and Hypothalamus. It helps in Hormonal secretions.
d)Hippocampus: It carries information to the nearest part of the cerebral hemispheres for long-term storage. It withdraws that information as per necessity. It is like a fibrous band of nerve fibres in an arc. It is located near amygdale. It collects new memories, Emotions, gives Navigation.
e)Hypothalamus: It gives direction to Body temperature, hunger, homeostasis, and Motivation, control of emotions, motor functions, to regulate sleep-wake cycle, etc.
f) Cortex: Cortex is located in the temporary lobes. This collects Olfactory sensory information, and understands the smells.
g) Thalamus: It is a large mass of grey matter. It receives/sends sensory information to and from Spinal cord and Cerebellum and gives the required directions. It is located above Hypothalamus and in the telencefalului. Pain, happiness, auditory signals, visual, somatosensory signals are sent by thalamus to Cerebral cortex. It receives the direction from Cerebral cortex.
h) Corpus callosum: white matter connects both the hemispheres. This white matter is called corpus callosum.
I)Cerebral cortex: This is the outer layer of Cerebrum. It is centre for our conscious thoughts, and works. The information of sense organs are collected here. In the rear side of cerebrum, in visual cortex, all vision information is collected here. Somatosensory cortex band is located above above Cerebrum. Here the touch information all over the body is collected. In front of Somatosensory cortex band exists motor cortex. It sends the required signals to the muscles for necessary movements.
J) Pons: It is a reflex centre for certain cranial nerves. It participates in Chewing, taste, saliva or drivel, hearing/listening, and homeostasis.
The ventricular system in the brain is a series of hollow spaces. They are connected to each other. They are called ventricles. These hollow spaces are filled with Cerebro spinal fluid—CFS. There two lateral ventricles, the third and fourth ventricles. These cerebral ventricles are connected small holes or pores called foramina and by larger channels. The third ventricle and the lateral ventricles are connected through interventricular foramina.
Reticular activating system-- RAS:
RAS is located in the Brain stem. RAS takes the important part in Sleep, walking, breathing, and Heart beat. In ascending order RAS connects with Cerebral cortexes, thalamus, and Hypothalamus. In descending order RAS connects with Cerebellum, and Sensor nerves. That means Reticular activating system-- RAS connects with cerebrum in ascending order, and in descending order it works with Cerebellum.
Now let us discuss about cell, tissue, membrane, and organ:
Cell: The fundamental particle that is required for the constructive and other works is CELL.
By doing Kriyayoga the cells will be invigorated and rejuvenated.
Cells are thin, flat, cubic, and elongated in form. Every cell contains chemicals, and water. Each human consists of approximately 100 trillion cells. Each cell is encrypted/encoded with the information regarding reproduction of its own clan.
The brain and the rest of the nervous system are composed of many different types of cells, but the primary functional unit is a cell called the neuron. They act through electrochemical signals. They are called action potentials(AP). They are formed through the movement of sodium and potassium ions. This will happen through neuron membranes. This information will be encrypted as 6 billion sub units of DNA in the nucleus of neuron. This DNA is called base pairs. These base pairs are packed in 23 pairs of chromosomes. One chromosome is received from mother, another chromosome is received from father at the time of conception. This way 46 chromosomes will become 23 pairs of chromosomes.
Axon: This is the long process of neuron. The information regarding the work done through Axon i.e., efferent outgoing action is known as action potential. This action potential is taken out i.e., from cell body to target cell(s). there will be axon in each and every nerve cell. Its height may be up to one feet approximately. There will be branches at the end of axon. From there the information will be transferred from one cell to another. From the fag end of the axon the information will be transferred from one cell to the effector organ as impulses.
Neurons are specialized cells that work in brain. They are useful for the distribution of information.
Gamma-aminobutyric acid-GABA is a very common neurotransmitter. Inhibiting the information through neuron is its primary function.
Cell will have several parts. In that every part has its assigned function. Certain parts of the cell has organelles. These are specialized structures. They do very important functions. They are: Cell division, cell movements, and to give direction in a specialized procedure, to regulate the molecules made by cell, to transfer these regulated molecules to the required cell(s) within and without, to swallow and digest harmful foreign bacteria, to remove dangerous toxic substances, to make alright the worn out particles and put them in recycling,etc. The mitochondria and organelles in the cell will produce the energy and food useful to the cell. It will help to decide the configuration of the cell, to do cell division, and for the movement of the cells etc. The cell division will help to replace old, dilapidated, damaged, and dead cells. Daily 2 trillion cell divisions will be done in the body for the growth and development of body.
Mitosis cell division: The non-reproductive cells in our body are called somatic cells. The cells in skin, muscles, lungs, gut, and hair can be called as somatic cells. They cannot produce life. The cell division of these somatic cells is called Mitosis cell division. The cell which is divided as per Mitosis cell division, is called daughter cell. These daughter cells are called diploid cells. Two complete chromosome sets in these diploid cells resemble mother chromosome sets. That is why no genetic diversity occurs due to this mitosis cell division.
Meosis cell division: This is another form of cell division. With this division sex cells egg cells( female ova) or male sperm cells are created. The female ova and male sperm cell merge together and form a zygote which is responsible for reproduction of another life.
Tissue: The cells of same form, clan, and construction are called tissue. There will be different tissues in different organs. The tissues are four types. They are: Epithelial, connective, muscular, and nervous tissues. In each and every important tissue there will be sub tissue.
Epithelial tissue is used as a cover of the body, or internal cavity. It is useful for protection, secretions, absorptions, and for filteration. Ex: skin is an organ. This tissue provides protection to the skin from dust, dirt, and from harmful bacteria.
Connective tissue is vast, abundant, and widely spread or distributed tissue. It is useful for support and protection. This is ordinarily a loose tissue. It is fatty, and with dense fibres. Cartilage, bone, blood, and lymph are considered to be connective tissues. Muscle tissue is smooth, skeletal, and Cardiac related. Skeletal tissue does voluntary work. Smooth muscle tissue is located in blood vessels. It does involuntary work. Cardiac tissue exists only in the walls of heart and this does involuntary work.
Nerve tissue: It is endowed with cells that do specialized works. These tissues not only get impulsed but also send impulses to body parts. These nerve cells or neurons are long like a thin thread.
Membrane: Membrane means layer. They are made of several tissues arranged together on one above the other. They are for protecting the body, and to divide organs into several divisions. Ex: Mucus membrane is useful for protecting the body cavities and to keep them in an order.
Organs: Several tissues combine together to form an organ. Every organ is meant for a definite assigned special work.
Systems: Several organs together become a system after all.
The cerebral cortex (bark): To protect the surfaces of cerebrum and cerebellum there will be a thick tissue with a layer of 1.5 to 1.5mm. This cerebral cortex receives and processes all the important information. That important information is distributed amongst cerebral lobes—Frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital. What we talk ordinarily talk is this gray matter in the brain. Where there is no insulation to cranial nerves it appears gray, and if there is insulation then this matters appears as white.
Pia, Arachnoid, and Dura matter: In central nervous system, covering the brain and spinal cord there will be three different layers. They are called meninges. This is a type of membrane system. Spinal cord and brain are surrounded by three matters viz., Pia, Arachnoid, and Dura matter. On this there exists periosteum, a fibrous membrane. This surrounds the bones.
Dura matter meninges is the topmost layer. That lies beneath the bone tissue. Sometimes this dura matter covers brain cavities. They are called sinus cavities or spaces. The blood in these dural veinous sinuses, and Cerebro spinal fluid-CPF will enter into a large jugular vein in the throat. The Cerebro spinal fluid-CPF will give cushioning effect to brain and spinal cord. CPF carries Nutrients, chemicals, and wastes. This is the cause of several healthy conditions. Arterial bleeding is called hemetomas. This is a very common unhealthy condition. If the arterial bleeding exists between Brain and Dura matter, it is known as epidural hematoma. If the arterial bleeding exists between Dura matter and arachnoid, it is known as subdural hematoma. The dura matter plays major role in certain headaches.
Arachnoid matter is the middle layer of meninges.
Pia matter is the last layrer after this arachnoid matter. This directly touches the Brain and spinal cord. It gives support to blood vessels. This support is called vascularisation. It helps in the production of Cerebro spinal fluid-CPF.
Sub arachnoid matter is the place between arachnoid matter and pia matter. CSF flows in this sub arachnoid space. The CSF which is responsible for the construction of brain will be produced more than required. Body will reabsorb the extra or additional CSF. The extra GSF ecapes the sub arachnoid, and enters into arachnoid granulations, from there to dura matter, from there to outer layer of dura matter, and then falls into blood steam. Or through lymphatic system via cranial nerves, and spinal nerve roots falls into blood steam. Body will reabsorbs it into it. This way the cycle continues.
The CSF sacs will exist all along the brain and spinal cord. They are known as arachnoid cisterns. Some cysts occur near these arachnoid cisterns. They happen during the infant state itself. Normally they show their effects at a latter adulthood state. If these arachnoid cisterns occur on spinal cord, they may lead to the symtoms of radiculopathy. Sciatica, Disc diseases, may occur. Other osteoarthritis diseases may also be the reason behind them.
The mutual understanding between two cerebral hemispheres, and spinal cord is very much essential. For this very complex structures are there in human brain. These will help for emotional state. The following structures exist in pairs, one for each hemisphere. Each one is image to the other one.
Hypothalamus is of pearl size. For waking you in the morning this will flow adrenaline. This is the emotional centre for pleasure, happiness, misery, and anger. Thalamus is nearer to Hypothalamus. This is a major clearing house. It is information centre from spinal cord to Brain, and from Brain to spinal cord.
Hippocampus: This small nub works as a memory indexer. This stores memories in cerebral hemispheres for long time and brings them out whenever needed to supply to the needed place.
Basal ganglia: it is group of nerve cells. They gather around thalamus. They control the movements.
Making Connections: Brain and the nervous systems are made of several different nerve cells. The working fundamental cell is called neuron. All sensations, movements, thoughts, memories, and ideas ll flow through these nerve cells. Nerve cell will have nucleus, dendrites and axons. For the well being and for making them useful of neuron i.e., nerve cell, molecules are made. Dendrites resemble branches of a tree. They spread from the cell outwardly. They collect information from other cells.
These dendrites will transfer that collected information to another neuron through the axon. That may be a muscle cell or another cell of organ. Neuron will be surrounded by many a number of supportive cells. The axon neuron that carries information is covered with several protective cells. That is called insulating sheath. This insulating sheath consists of fatty molecule. That is known as myelin. This will provide protection to the information carrying axon. Also it gives fast and long distance carrying potential. The sheaths may be shorter or longer. Small axons may be carrying information from a cell of cortex to a distance of thin hair like thickness. Long axons may be carrying information from brain to long distances through spinal cord.
The space where information is transferred from neuron to another cell is known as synapse. The axon leaves information in small sacs after reaching the destination. This is known as signal. These sacs contain chemicals known as neurotransmitters. These are left in the synapse. These neurotransmitters cross the synapses and attached to receptors. And then enter into neighboring cell. These receptors can change the qualities of the cell(S) that receive the information. The other cell must be neuron, then only the signal reaches the next cell.
Cell contains DNA. DNA contains Genes. Each cell contains chemicals and water. Each cell is encoded with information required for reproductive cell of its own clan. An important property of DNA is that it can replicate, or make copies of itself. This information is stored as a DNA molecule in the nucleus of the cell. These DNA molecules are known as Genetic material. These Genetic material are known as base pairs. They adjoined together and form very long chains. This very long chain is known as chromosome. Each chain like chromosome consists of 33.5 millions of DNA units. These base pairs are packed as 23 pairs of chromosomes. One chromosome from mother, and another chrosome from father are inherited by the child at the time of conceiving. This way 46 chromosomes become 23 pairs of chromosomes. Some small places in these chromosomes are recognized as Genes. These are made up of several thousand DNA units. The whole genetic material that exists in a human is known as genome. DNA is Deoxyribonucleic acid.
The information in DNA is stored as a code made up of four chemical bases: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). There will be approximately 3 billion bases inhuman DNA. 99% of these basic pairs are common amongst humans. The order, or sequence, of these bases determines the information available for building and maintaining an organism, similar to the way in which letters of the alphabet appear in a certain order to form words and sentences.
Adenine (A) is always paired with thymine (T). Likewise cytosine (C) is paired with guanine (G).
Each and every base is tied with one sugar molecule, and one Phosphate molecule. Base sugar molecule, sugar molecule, and Phosphate molecule all three combinedly known as nucleotide. DNA molecule can replicate itself.
Genes: These are fundamental. Every human is estimated to have 20,000 to 25,000 genes. So far only 3% genes could be found it. There is no clarity regarding the rest of 97%. Gene is genetic material. Without this there is no life. These Genes will control/regulate all these fundamental units in all cell. All the constructive works will be decided by these genes. They also determine the qualities, neurochemicals in neurons, and biochemicals. The DNA that contains our genes is stored in our cells in a structure called the nucleus. A gene is a length of DNA that codes for a specific protein. For example, one gene will code for the protein insulin, which is important role in helping your body to control the amount of sugar in your blood.
Chromosomes: If all the DNA molecules in a human body is joined together one after another then they will be of 6000 million miles long. To store this important material, DNA molecules are tightly packed around proteins called histones. These structures are called chromosomes. every human is bestowed with 23 pairs of chromosome. These chromosomes exist in each and every cell. The sex of the child will be determined by the sex chromosomes. If it is XY then the child will be male, and if it is XX then it is female child. The other chromosomes in the cell are known as autosomes. The largest chromosome contains 8000 genes. The smallest chromosome contains 300 genes.
Circulatory system: In this circulatory system several organs work together. In this, Blood, nutrients, harmones, oxygen, and other gases, will travel from one cell(s) to another cell(s). without this system this body cannot combat the diseases. It cannot make the inner things alright. If there is no proper regulated circulatory system, this body will lose its homeostatis. Gradually death occurs.
For proper flow of blood, kriyayoga Pranayama is required so as to remove the toxins and harmful wastes that obstruct it.
Circulatory system is also known as cardiovascular system. In this Heart – cardio vascular, Lungs – pulmonary, arteries, veins, coronary and portal vessels –systemic, all work together. Pulmonary artery is a blood vessel that will carry oxygenless blood from heart to lungs for purification.
Veins and Arteries:
Veins are the blood vessels that carry oxygenless blood towards heart.
Arteries are the blood vessels that carry oxygen loaded blood away from heart.
These arteries are of two types. They are: 1) Pulmonary, and 2) Systemic.
Pulmonary artery is a blood vessel that carry oxygenless blood from heart to lungs for purification.
Systemic arteries are the blood vessels that carry oxygen loaded blood away from heart to the organs. The other subtle blood vessels of arteries are known as arterioles and capillaries. These will carry blood to the most subtle parts of the organs.
The veins are of two types. They are: 1) Pulmonary, and 2) Systemic.
Pulmonary veins are a set of veins. Pulmonary veins are the blood vessels that carry oxygen loaded purified blood from lungs to heart.
Systemic veins are the blood vessels that carry oxygenless blood from the other parts of the body to heart.
The Pulmonary and Systemic veins, both may be superficial. They can be felt with touch. Or they may be embedded deep within the body.
Heart is in fact a muscle. It is lie pump that distributes blood throughout the body. It has four channels. The upper two are: left and right artia., The lower two are: left and right ventricles. Blood vessels carry to and from these chambers to the required places. Oxygenated blood is carried from lungs to heart. That oxygenated blood is distributed through out the body. This will invigorate the tissues with oxygen. After that deoxygenated blood shall reach heart after the consumption of oxygen by the organs. The deoxygenated blood is taken to lungs for oxygenation. Then the oxygenated blood is taken back to heart for distribution to body parts.
Right side: Inferior and superior venacova are big veins. Deoxygenated Blood reaches right atrium through these veins. From there through tricuspid valve blood reaches right ventricle. From here this deoxygenated blood reaches lungs through pulmonary valve. There carbon dioxide is removed and oxygen is added to the blood.
Left side: The pulmonary vein empties oxygen-rich blood, from the lungs, into the left atrium. From here, the purified blood reaches left ventricle through the open mitral valve. Lastly it is pumped through the aortic valve into the aorta. From arota the oxygenated blood is distributed to all parts of the body.
When ventricles are full, mitral valve and tricuspid valve both will be closed. The blood will not be allowed back to atria through this process when ventricles contract or squeeze. This process i.e.,the working of heart, and lungs, in this way to distribute blood, continues till death.
The alternately contract and squeeze process of Atria and ventricles one after another continues till death. The atria and ventricles work together by alternately contracting (squeezing) and relaxing to pump blood through our heart. The heartbeat is triggered by electrical impulses that travel down a special pathway through our heart. The electrical system of our heart is the power source that makes this beating possible.
By doing beejakshara chanting in Anahata and visuddha chakras the heart problems can be ameliorated. Blood pressure will be controlled.
Oxygen is required for the heart to work. But the blood that is pumping through the heart does not supply oxygen to the heart muscle itself. Coronary arteries are the special blood vessels that are attached to the outside of the heart. They supply the heart with oxygen and nutrients needs. Three major arteries and a number of smaller vessels are designed to perform this function.
We breath 12 to 20 times in a minute. Our lungs will expand and contract. This leads to supply of oxygen to body and removes carbon dioxide. The process of keeping oxygen and removing carbondioxide is known as gas exchange.
In breathing process, lungs and other organs play important part. The breathing process starts at mouth. The breath we inhale shall pass through the nose or from mouth, and it travels down the back of throat and into windpipe, or trachea. This trachea then divides into air passages called bronchial tubes. Lungs perform their best, when these airways must open during inhalation and exhalation and they must be free from inflammation or swelling and excess or abnormal amounts of mucus.
When bronchial tubes pass through the lungs, bronchial tubes divide into smaller air passages called bronchioles. The bronchioles end in tiny balloon-like air sacs called alveoli. The body has over 300 million alveoli.
The alveoli are surrounded by a mesh of tiny blood vessels called capillaries. Here, oxygen from the inhaled air passes through the alveoli walls and into the blood.
After absorbing oxygen, the blood leaves the lungs and is carried to heart. Our heart then pumps it through the body to provide oxygen to the cells of tissues and organs.
After the cells consume the oxygen, carbon dioxide is produced and absorbed into the blood. Blood then carries the carbon dioxide back to lungs, where it is removed from the body during exhalation.
Diaphragm helps in breathing process. It is a big dome shaped muscled structure. It is located beneath the lungs. When we breath in or inhale, this diaphragm contracts down. The one vacuum occurs. Then the fresh air enters into lungs. During exhalation it contracts up. That is it gets relaxed. It pushes the lungs. Then the lungs get emptied. The air goes out of lungs.
In breathing process, the hairs in the nose cleanse the dust. There are microscopic hairs known as cilia in air passages. The wastes, and dust will be swept away and will not allow them to go in. Cigarette smoke will spoil these cilia. Then they will not sweep. Then the diseases of bronchitis occur.
The moisture producing cells in Trachea and bronchial tubes shall keep the air passages wet so as to prevent the dirt and dust to go in. Bacteria and viruses, allergy causing substances, and other harmful substances will be obstructed.
Nervous system is of four types. They are 1) Cranial Nerves, 2) nerves in the spinal cord, 3) nerves in the sensory organs, 4) All of the nerves that connect these organs with the rest of the body. All these nervous systems together control the body. They also help the organs to connect/cooperate with each other for balancing the body.
Brain and spinal cord both together is known as Control centre. This is known as Central nervous system—CNS. This is akin to Central processing centre—CPU in computer. Just like CPU, all the information has to reach Central nervous system—CNS. Here in CNS that information is evaluated.
The information from Sensory organs will be monitored by Peripheral nervous system—PNS. It will compare the conditions within and without the body. Then that information is sent to Central nervous system—CNS. There the action to be taken is determined/decided. Then the efferent nerves in the Peripheral nervous system—PNS will send the signal from Control centre i.e., Central nervous system—CNS to muscles, glands, or organs. Then these muscles, glands, or organs shall regulate the works as per the decision taken by CNS.
Nervous tissues are of two types. They are: a) neurons, and b) neuroglia.
Neurons means nerve cells. These neurons carry signals in electo chemical signal process. The neurons differ from other cells in the body in appearance and functioning. Neurons are long in appearance and almost round. They contain nucleus, mitochondria, and cellular organelles. Axons and dendrites(extensions) will be more in neuron. They are specialized cells that carry information from body to brain, and from brain to body. Nerve and neuron is having a very close relationship.
Neurons are nerve cells are of three types. They are: 1) Afferent, 2) Efferent, and 3) inter neurons.
Afferent neurons: These are also called sensory neurons. They carry information from receptors to Central nervous system—CNS.
Efferent neurons: These are also called sensory neurons. They carry information from Central nervous system—CNS to receptors. The receptors may be glands,or muscles.
Inter neurons: These are the network systems in Central nervous system—CNS. They compare the information collected from Afferent neurons. Then they will decide the work to be done through efferent neurons
Neuroglia is the another type of cell in Nervous tissue cells. They are the supporting cells to nervous system. They are also called Glial cells. Every neuron is surrounded by 6 to 60 neuroglia cells. They provide protection, neutrition, and insulation to neurons. These glial cells will almost not have reproductive capacity of same cells.
Brain in brief:
It is of 3 pounds weight and covered with bones within. It is control centre. It along with spinal cord is known as central nervous system—CNS. It is consisting of approximately 100 billion neurons. Collection of information from the body, analysis, and distribution, all are done in the brain. CNS is the store house of Mental consciousness, reservoir of memory, and centre of ideas and plans. Involuntary actions are ordered here. Control of breath, heart beat, blood pressure, and digestion, brain is the main cause.
Spinal cord in brief:
This is long and thin organ. Spinal cord is a mass of bundled neurons. This carries information from first beed (located near medulla oblongata—agna negative)of vertebral cavity (Sushumna subtle naadi) to the brain. The beginning of vertebral cavity is located at superior end of the brain. The information comes down upto lumbar region (Manipura chakra). There at lumbar region of the spinal cord, another bundle of nerves starts. It resembles the tail of horse and hence it is known as cauda equine. From there the information comes to sacrum (swaadhistana chakra) and to coccyx(Mooladhara chakra).
White matter in the spinal cord is the main conduit of nerve signals. The grey matter of the spinal cord integrates reflexes to stimuli.
There will be 12 sets of cranial nerves from the inferior side of brain. Each and every nerve of these 12 sets of cranial nerves is of specific function and hence recognised as such. Ex: Olfactory, Optic etc.
Special sense organ, muscles of the head, neck, shoulders, GI tract( the gastro intestinal tract is the soft tissue tube that begins at the mouth and ends with the anus and include all the organs in between), for all these craniel nerves make direct connection.
Olfactory nerve will carry information from nose to the brain.
Oculomotor Trochlear, and abducens will work together so that the brain makes movement of eyes, and focus.
Trigeminal nerves send the signal from the face. They take the signals from one part to another. They give energy for chewing.
Facial nerves transport signals from one part to another so as to make the muscles to contract and expand according to the need. Taste information is taken to the brain.
Vestibulocochlear nerve transports hearing and balance information from ears to brain.
Glossopharyngeal nerve carries taste information from back of the tongue to brain. It helps in swallowing.
Vegus nerve is a very important nerve. It innervates many different areas. This wandering nerve percolates into all places. It carries information to all important places. Brain, neck, and from neck to torso, this way it carries information to all organs, from organs to brain, from brain back to these organs. It brings motor signals from brain and help the organ to act as per the situation.
Accessory nerve controls the movements of neck and shoulders.
Hypoglossal nerve helps the tongue to swallow and also in talking.
There will be total 31 pairs of nerves on both sides of spinal cord. These are mixed nerves. These nerves carry sensory and motor information to spinal cord and specific regions of of body. These 31 pairs are split into 5 groups. They will be in the parts or places of regions as per the work.
In neck place (Visuddha in the throat of the astral spinal cord) 8 pairs of cervical nerves are located.
In dorsal place (Anahata in the astral spinal cord) there will be 12 pairs of thoracic nerves.
In lumbar area(Manipura i.e.,behind the navel in the spinal cord) there will be 5pairs of lumbar nerves.
In sacral area (swadhistana i.e.,behind phallus in the spinal cord) there will be 5 pairs of sacral nerves.
In Coccygeal area (Mooladhara i.e.near anus in the spinal cord) there will be one pair of Coccygeal nerves.
Every nerve gets separated from the spinal cord.
Meninges is a three layered protection cover to Central Nervous system—CNS. They are: Dura matter, Arachnoid matter, and Pia matter.
Dura matter: This layer is a thick, strong, and a top layer or superficial layer. This is a tough mother type layer. It is an irregular connective tissue. It will have several collagen fibres, and blood vessels. It protects Central nervous system--CNS from external damage. It contains Cerebrospinal fluid—CPS. It covers CNS. It transfers blood to nervous tissue.
Aachnoid matter: It is known as spider like mother. It is thinner than dura matter, and delicate. This layer is on the inner side of dura matter. There will be several very very thin fibres in this arachnoid layers. It will communicate with Pia matter via through these fibres. There will be a sub arachnoid matter in between arachnoid and pia matters.
Pia matter: This is called tender mother. It is a very very delicate tissue. It is located outside the brain and spinal cord. This exists for the protection of Central nervous system—CNS. This pia matter penetrates into the valleys of the sulci and fissures of the brain. This way it covers the whole of Central nervous system—CNS.
Cerebro spinal fluid--CFS:
The whole of Central nervous system empty space is filled with Cerebro spinal fluid—CFS. CFS is produced from choroid plexses in the ventricles of brain. That CFS is brought by plasma. Plasma is of yellow colour. To carry Nuetrients, harmones, and proteins, to the required places, to separate the wastes that are left in the blood by cells, and to carry everything in circulatory system, to produce immunoglobulins—antibodies for the protection of the body, to make the blood clot, are the functions of this plasma. The plasma contains proteins albumin and fibrinogen.
Metabolism is related to the availability and procuring nutrients—carbon, Hydrozen, oxygen, nitrozen, phosphorous, and sulphur etc.
Proteins produce body tissues. There are about 20 inorganic elements which are essential for proper body functioning. They are carbon, Hydrozen, oxygen, nitrozen, phosphorous, and sulphur etc. These nutrients are available to the body due to the intake of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins through food. Along with them vitamins, minerals, and water are also essential requirements to the proper body functioning.
Catabolism: The break down of molecules to obtain the required energy for the body is known as catabolism.
Anabolism: The synthesis of all compounds needed by the cells is anabolism.
Choroid plexus—CP is a filter tool. It contains very very thin blood vessels known as capillaries. Epithelial tissues will be covering them. This epithelial tissue filters the blood plasma and CSF. This Choroid plexus—CP makes this separated CSF to fill the cavities in the brain. It filters the wastes that are accumulated during metabolism, foreign substances, and excess neurotransmitters from Cerebro spinal fluid.
The newly produced CSF shall flow through ventricles. That reaches brain through the empty central canal in spinal cord.
This is akin to Sushumna subtle nadi of Astral spinal cord. That is the reason we do kriyayoga meditation through sushumna.
This CSF also flows through sub arachnoid matter. The CSF always be produced in choroid plexus—CP. In arachnoid villies the CSF again will be reabsorbed in blood.
This cerebro spinal fluid—CSF gives protection to Central nervous system—CNS, it absorbs the sudden shocks that are received by neck and brain, and shocks that are received during sports or attacks with others, and the wastes that are collected during metabolism.
Sense organs are the part of nervous system. Eyes, taste buds(tongue), smell(olfactory), hearing, and balance are all special organs.
These are called gnanendriyas in spiritual parlance. There will be sensory receptors thrugh out the body to feel touch, temperature, and pain. Afferent neurons will carry this information to CNS for analysis and appropriate action.
Peripheral nervous system—PNS: Except brain and spinal cord, all other nervous comes within the perview of this PNS.
Somatic nervus system—SNS: This is a part of peripheral nervous system—PNS. Voluntary efferent neurons are also part of somatic nervous system—SNS. This SNS of PNS is only system that consciously controlled part. Stimulating skeletal muscles is the responsibility of SNS.
Autonomous nervous system—ANS: This ANS is also a part of PNS. It contains involuntary efferent neurons. These are called motor neurons. Autonomous nervous system--ANS controls subconscious effectors. Ex: visceral muscle tissue, cardiac muscle tissue, and glandular tissue.
This autonomous nervous system is of two types. They are Sympathetic and para sympathetic. This ANS is also a part of Perpheral nervous system.
Sympathetic nervous system—SNS : This SNS responds to Stress, danger, excitement, exercise, emotions, and embarrassment etc according to situation. It will leave adrenaline and other stress harmones, and it will reduce the digestion. Hence stress will be reduced. This is known as Fight and flight.
Para sympathetic nervous system—PSNS: This is a rest and digest type system. This system inhibits the work done by sympathetic nervous system.
Sympathetic and para sympathetic systems are complimentary to each other.
Enteric nervous system—ENS: This is a part of Autonomous nervous system—ANS. This enteric nervous system receives information from Central nervous system through Sympathetic and para sympathetic systems. It regulates its functioning as such. Regulating digestion, and function of digestion of digestive organs is the responsibility of ENS.
The axons are covered with insulation. This is called myelination. This improves and increases speed of nerve conduction. This myelin insulation layer is formed with two types of glial cells. They are: The Schwann cells of peripheral nervous system, and oligodendrocytes cells of Central nervous system. In both types the glial cells covers around axon with its plasma membrane and thick lipid layers. To make sheaths around axons is known as myelination.
Lipid is a large oarge organic groups. They are oily when touched with hands. They will not dissolve in water. Ex: fatty acids, waxes, sterols, and triglycerides. These are the sources of stored energy. These are the parts of cell membrane.
Reflexes: The involuntary actions are called reflexes. They work with Gray matter in spinal cord or brain stem. They work or act before the information reaches brain through neurons even without experiencing the informations. Ex: We withdraw our hands from the place even without the experience of that heat.
Gland: It is like a tissue. The different glands are useful for several different works in the body.
The glands are two types. They are: Exocrine glands, and endocrine glands.
Exocrine gland secrets its juice through a duct to the required places. Ex: Salivaryglands, sweat glands, and mammary glands.
Endocrine glands secrets its juice in the blood. This juice flows throught the body with the process of circulation. Ex: Thyroid gland, adrenals, and pituitary etc.
Pancreas will work as both endocrine and exocrine gland. So it a mixed gland.
Pitutary gland: This gland receives information from Hypothalamus in the brain. This Hypothalamus itself receives information from the body. For example, if any harmone level goes down then Hypothalamus sends immediate information through harmones to pituitary gland. Pitutary gland produces those harmones and supplies them to those glands through blood circulation. It regulates the behavioural pattern of defective gland. It will regulate that gland and correct it. This pituitary gland shall not function properly due tumors.
White & gray matters: The axons are covered with lipids i.e., myelinated, so it appears white. It is in the inner brain and spinal cord. To carry information quickly to brain and spinal cord is the speciality of white matter. The uncovered and unmyelinated layer is known as gray matter. The information in the gray matter is processed in the brain and spinal cord.
Some organs work together in digestive system. Food is converted to energy, and fundamental nutrients. Body needs 20 important inorganic elements viz., Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorous, and sulphur etc. The food we have taken shall be sent through an alimentary canal or the Gastro intestinal tract—GI Tract. Oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine. And also teeth, saliva glands, liver, gallbladder, pancreas etc are the supportive organs help in digestion. All of them together is known as GI Tract.
The digestivesystem can be divided into six parts. They are: ingestion, secretion, mixing and movement, digestion, absorption, and excretion.
Mouth: Digestion process starts with mouth or oral cavity. The teeth crushes the food into pieces. That food is moistened with saliva glands and poshed into the gullet(Pharynx).
Each and every tooth of 32 teeth is made with dentin and covered with enamel. Teeth are strong and tough.
Each and every tooth lies in a soft space. It contains blood vessels and nerves. Taste buds on the tongue recognises the taste and convey that information to the brain through nerves. Then the food is swallowed. The three sets of saliva glands that are on the tongue supplies the required moisture. Due to this the moistened carbohydrates start digesting. This mostened food is sent into esophagus. Pharynx plays important role in breathing process also. The inhaled breath goes into larynx and from there it reaches lungs. There is a switch called epiglottis in pharynx. That allows food to go into esophagus, and gas into larynx.
Esophagus is a muscular tube that connects pharynx and stomach. Stomach is the upper part of upper gastro intestinal tract—GI Tract. Underneath that a round ring like muscle exists known as lower esophageal sphincter or cardiac sphincter. That takes the food in and closes esophagus.
Stomach is muscular sac. It exists by the side of abdominal cavity, touching the diaphragm just below with a length of two fists. Stomach is a food granary. Food taken in is stored here for proper digestion. There will be hydrochloric acid and required digestive enzymes in this stomach. They will help us to get the food digested through out the day.
Small intestine is one inch in daiameter, and ten feet long tube. This is lower gastro intestinal tract. It is underneath the stomach. This intestine occupies a large space in abdominal cavity. It lies coiled. The 90% of nutrients in the food are absorbed before leaving intestine.
Liver and gallbladder:
This liver is roughly triangular accessory with a weight of 3 pounds and it is a second largest organ in the body. It is supportive organ. It is located adjacent to right side of stomach, just below diaphragm, and above intestine. Liver produces bile. Its important function is to secret bile for digestion by intestine.
The pearl shaped Gallbladder is just posterior to liver. To keep or recycle the excess bile is the functioning of this gallbladder. It helps in digestion.
By the left side of abdominal cavity, just behind stomach, and below the diaphragm exists this soft spleen. Spleen filters depleted red blood cells from the blood stream and destroys them. During emergency it supplies one cup blood kept by it. It produces lymph nodes with lymphocytes. Spleen contains T cells, B cells, Dendrite cells, macrophges, and red blood cells. Antigens—foreign materials are removed from the blood by this spleen. spleen is a immunological centre. The B cells in spleen produces antibodies and protects the body.
Bone marrow develops blood cells. The immune system related cells all come from bone marrow only.
The left side of the body is the source of many a important organs. Left kidney, left ovry, left adrenal gland, stomach, spleen, heart, and pancreas all are located in left side only.
Small intestine is of three parts. They are: Duodenum, Jejunum, and Ilium.
a)Duodenum: To receive the secretions of bile juice and pancreatic juice for breaking down the food is the responsibility of duodenum. The brunner gland which secrets mucus is located in the duodenum. For digestion and absorption of food, both brunner and duodenum work together. This occupies 40% of small intestine.
b) Jejunum: A bit thick coiled tube is Jejunum. Its projections are like finger like and the walls of jejunum are called villi. This villies are made very very subtle micro villies. These will help more and more nutrients to digest in small intestine. Simple sugars, the water soluble vitamins except vitamin and some Bs, and amino acids that are produced from food, all these are absorbed in blood through these villies. Fats will be sent to lumph capillaries and rest of the food goes into ilium.
c) Ilium: This is the last part of small intestine. It is mainly of pelvic region. It contains few blood vessels which are very thin. Here only occurs last absorption into blood of nutrients—amino acids—the end products of protein digestion, fatty soluble vitamins—A,D,E, and K, fatty acids—the end products of fat digestion, cholesterol, sodium, potassium alcohol, and B12. The terminal ilium is the last part of ilium. This very important. Vitamin B12 absorbs in blood capillaries. here only. The undigested waste(s) of the food enters into Cecum. This Cecum is the beginning of large intestine. This food residue is full of bacteria.
Pancreas is a large gland. It is located underneath and just posterior to stomach. This of 6 inche long. It is like a snake. Its head is enjoined or toching duodenum, and left abdominal cavity wall. It secrets enjymes for digestion in small intestine. With this chemical digestion process completes.
It is of five feet long with 2 ½ inches diameter. It is just below the stomach and surrounds the small intestine. It absorbs water. It contains symbiotic bacteria. It will further remove wastes and saves the residual nutrients, if any, for the body. Feces will be excreted from anal canal of this large intestine.
Urinary system—excreting of urine from our body:
Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra all together constitutes urinary system. Kidneys filter wastes from the blood. Ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra together is known as urinary tract. It is like a plumbing system. It will extract urine out of kidneys, store it, and then sends that urine out of the body is the functioning of plumbing system. Not only that, this plumbing system maintains the homeostatis with water, ions, pH, blood pressure, and red blood cells.
Kidneys: Let us know what is peritoneum. It is a closed membrous sac with two layers. One layer will close the cavity. It is known as parietal peritoneum. The second layer will cover the organ in that cavity. There will be a clear water like serous membrane which is known as visceral peritoneum.
Kidneys are like beans shaped organs. They are located all along in the posterior abdominal cavity. Right side it is bit heighty than left side due to the existence of the liver. Kidneys are located posterior to the peritoneum touching the muscles of the back. It will be surrounded with an adipose tissue layer so that it is tight,intact and protected without any physically harmful damage. Metabolic wastes, excess ions, chemicals, are filtered out of the blood and form as urine.
Ureters: These are 10 to 12 inches long pair of tubes that carry urine from kidneys to urinary bladder.theyare located on left and right side of the body, and parallel to vertebral column. The edges or corners of ureters buts into urinary bladder and enclosed there by ureterovesical valves. These will help the urine in the urinary bladder will not rush back into kidneys. The gravity and peristalsis of smooth muscle tissue in the walls of ureters will help in urine to fall into urinary bladder.
This is an empty sack. Urine is stored here. It is located below the pelvis. It can expand to store 600 to 800 milli ltrs of urine. Then a signal will be sent to to brain through spinal cord. Then the urine will be excreted through penis out of the body.
Urethra is a tube carrier of urine from urinary bladder to out of the body. This of 8 to 10 inches long all along penis in males, and of 2 inches long in females. This is a part of reproductive system in males. The sperm will be sent through this urethra and penis to female vagina.
The wastes like Potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, phosphate, and chloride ions into urine are controlled and protect the homeostatis of the body by kidneys. Kidneys will regulate the levels of Hydrogen Ions H+ and bicarbonate ions. When excess water exists in the body, kidneys will send it out of the body, and during the deficiency of water in the body, it will recycle it through blood without excreting the water out of the body. This way kidneys protect the dehydration of the body. This process is called osmolarity. In that circumstances Ions, and wastes are highly concentrated in that urine. The antidiuretic harmone—ADH, controls this water during urine excretion. This ADH harmone is produced by Hypothalamus in the brain. It releases through posterior pituitary gland. Kidneys help in regulating blood pressure and maintains homeostatis of the body.
Filteration: Every kidney aout of pair of kidneys contains approximately 10 lakhs of nephrons. This will segregate the urine out of blood. For this filteration, bundle of capillaries that are surrounded or covered by glomerulus capsule, and arterioles that carry blood to kidneys, work together.
Kidneys—harmones: Kidneys by themselves not only produce harmones but also work together with several harmones. Calcitriol is the active form of Vitamin D. Calcitriol is very essential to the body. Kidneys produce this Calcitriol directly from ultra violet radiation rays that come from sun. Calcitriol and parathyroid harmone work together. Then the required calcium ions are produced. This will help the small intestine to obtain the calcium from the food and transfer it to blood.
Kidneys produce erythropoietin—EPO hrmone. These EPOs give the required potential to red blood cells. Kidneys continuously monitor the blood that flows through its capillaries, produce the EPOs and leaves them in the blood stream. The depletion oxygen levels is called hypoxic. Then the production of red red blood cells will be regulated.
Lyphatic system—body defences:
Lymphatic system is known as drainage system of body. It contains several bood vessels, and small structures. These are called lymph nodes. Excess liquids are again sent through blood stream through these lyph nodes for filtering. The white blood cells or lymphocytes destroy the harmful bacteria. Lymphocytes are merged with blood flow.
Antibodies: Antibodies are produced by this lyph system. They are specialised proteins. To combat the foreign substances in the body, these proteins are produced by lymph system. When antigens provoke the lymphocytes then the beginning of antibodies are produced. These lymphocytes join with antibodies so as to protect the body from harmful substances. During the production of antibodies, lymph nodes will be swollen. We can feel them with hands by touching underneath the armpits, throat, and groins. The antibodies are also produced more in spleen that is located above the abdomen.
Female reproductive system:
This system contains ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, mammary glands, breasts, gamets. These organs play important role to help in for production and transportation of sex harmons. Gamets are the eggs—sex cells that help in reproduction. They are called ova. Ova combines with male sperm to become zygote.
Ovaries: These ovaries are small glands and resemble almond in shape and magnitude. They are located on both sides of pelvic body cavity adjacent to uterus. These ovaries produce sex harmones viz., estrogen, progesterone, and ova—eggs. They are produced in females every month after mensuration. These ova travel from ovaries to fallopian tubes. They get fertilized in tubes itself before reaching uterus.
Fallopian tubes: These are apair of muscular tubes. Fallopian tubes are located on both sides of uterus all along its length beginning from the above corner to the edge. It is a funnel like structure. To transport infundibulum, and ova to ovaries is the functioning of these tubes.
Uterus: it is an empty pearl shaped organ that is located above the posterior urinary bladder. Its superior side is connected to fallopian tubes and its inferior side is connected to vagina through cervix. This shelters the developing fetus. The inner layer od uterus is known as endometrium. The initial stages of infant is called embryo. Endometrium shelters this embryo. At the time of child birth, the visceral muscles in uterus contacts and pushes the fetus out through birth canal.
Vagina: It is an elastic muscular tube. This connects the cervix of uterus to outside the body. Vagina is located below the uterus and posterior to urinary bladder. This is counter part to penis. It is a receptacle. During intercourse, sperm that falls in this receptacle vagina that will be carried to uterus through fallopian tubes. This is a receptacle that the fetus shall exit that comes to this via birth canal during child birth. During mensus bad blood wastes exit through this vagina.
Vulva: Urethra is a tube that carries urine from urinary bladder to outside the body for urination. Its external ends, vagina, mons pubis, labia majora, hairless labia minora, clitoris, all combinely called vulva. Mons pubis, and labia majora, both contain hair, will give cushioning effect to vulva. Above the hairless labia minora, there an erected tissue called clitoris. This clitoris contains several nerve ends. This is and menat for sensing sexual pleasure.
Breasts and Mammary Glands: They are located on both sides of thoracic (Anahata chakra)region. When they get excited milk glands produce milk and delivers the milk through nipples.
Ovum production, that fertilized ovam to be received by uterus for pregnancy is to be done in a particular fashion or process is called reproductive cycle. The ovum that is produced has to be fertilized, lest it will be exited out of the body by reproductive cycle through menstruation. This reproductive cycle happens repeatedly every month. It may take 28 days. In some ladies, it may take 24 to 36 days. The process of producing these matured ovums by ovaries is called ovulation. For this it takes 14 days. Whatever number of ovums are produced, but only one matured ovum comes out in one reproductive cycle.
When the matured ovum comes out of ovaries, it takes one week to travel from fallopian tubes to reach or enter into uterus. If the male sperm can penetrate into that ovum, then it becomes or transforms into a fertilized zygote. That zygote transforms into an embryo after aperiod of 14 days. From that time onwards the embryo develops or grows in uterine walls.
Menstruation: The matured ovum travels through fallopian tube, the endometrium layer in uterus grows. It will be ready to give shelter to embryo.
Pregnancy: If the male sperm penetrates into ovum, becomes a zygote, and then transforms into an embryo, then that embryo implants itself into endometrium. Then amniotic cavity, umbilical cord, and placenta are formed. In initial 8 weeks, almost all tissues and organs are produced in embryo. In the next 9 to 38 weeks (fetal period), the child becomes large and complex.
Male Reproductive system: Male Reproductive system is meant for Production, harmony, transportation of sperm cells, and protective fluid-semen, to leave sperm in female reproductive tract during intercourse, to produce and leave male sex harmones.
Penis, scrotum, and testicles, all lie external to the body but attached to body.
Penis: This is utilised during intercourse. It consists of three parts. They are: a) root: this is attached to the abdomen, b) body or shaft, and 3) glans: this is at the edge of penis. This is covered with lose skin. Some people remove it with circumcision.
This penis is covered with three round layers. These layers consist of very very thin cavities. Blood accumulates in these cavities during intercourse and hardens this penis. The urine that comes from urethra will be closed at that time. During orgasm only semen comes out.
Scrotum: This constitutes testes, nerves, and blood vessels. These will help to maintain required temperature for production of sperm.
Testicles: The testes in scrotum helps in the production of sperm, and testosterone, an important sex harmone. Seminiferous tubules in these testes help in producing sperm cells.
The excretion of waste products like urea, ammonia, uric acid, and excess volume of extracellular fluids, balancing of ions, maintenance of pH and osmotic concentration, is the functiong of this excretory system.
Now let us discuss in brief:
Kidneys: There will be about 10lakhs of very very thin nephrons in each kidney. These microscopic nephrons filter the blood. Each nephrons consists cluster of capillaries called a glomerulus. Glomerulus is covered with a capsule called Bowman’s capsule. In this blood is filtered due to pressure. Water, glucose, and urea remains in this Bowman’s capsule. Blood continues its circulation in blood vessels and reaches renal tubule. Chemicals like Glucose, potassium, hydrogen, magnesium, and calcium, will be reabsorbed in blood. This way the body needed water will be removed, and the rest of the wastes viz., Urea, waste water, and inorganic salts only will be left in these nephrons. These wastes are then excreted through urine. The cleansed or cleaned blood will be sent again through veins to the heart by kidneys.
Ureters: This is a tube that carries urine from kidneys to the urinary bladder which is of normally 25—30cm long.
Urethra: This is a tube that carries urine from urinary bladder to outside the body for excretion.
Bladder: This is an organ that stores urine that comes out of kidneys. From this urinary bladder only the urine is carried to outside the body for excretion.
Skin: It excretes wastes of the body to outside through perspiration. In this process it mains the required body temperature and rescues inner organs and tissues of the body. This is a largest organ of all which of 20 sq feet surface area.
This is one of the five sense organs viz., ears, tongue, eyes, nose, and skin. They are called five gnaanendriyas.
Lungs: These remove carbon dioxide from blood, and give oxygento blood for purification.
Skin, hair, nails, and exocrine glands all together are called integumentary system system. Skin, hair and nails protect the inner body organs, tissues, from chemicals, diseases, and ultra violet rays from sun. The required sweat, oil, wax, and moisture is produced or provided by the exocrine glands to the body in order to protect it from dirt, dust, and etc.
The most superficial layer is called epidermis. It covers the whole body. It protects the dermis layer underneath that. There will not be any blood or blood vessels in this epidermis. It gets its nutrients from dermis layer. 90% of epidermis cells are called keratinocytes. This epidermis is of four layers everywhere but of five layers in palms, and feet. The innermost layer is called stratum basal. They produce pigment melanin. This melanin protects the skin from ultraviolet radiation and sunburn.
Dermis: Dermis layer lies below the epidermis. This contains layers of nerves, blood, and blood vessels. It is thicker than epidermis. It provides strength and elasticity to skin. It consists of two layers viz., papillary, and reticular. Through them the epidermis layer will be getting nutrients, and oxygen. Touch, pain, and temperature,etc shall reach dermis from epidermis through nerve layers of dermis layers.
Glands of the Human Endocrine System:
1)Hypothalamus: This is located in the brain. It is a control and relay centre of endocrine system.
2) Pitutary gland: This located in the brain. This is a master gland. It is having three lobes. They are: Posterior, Interior, and anterior.
A) Posterior lobe: a)This lobe produces oxytocin harmone. It motivates uterine and breast contraction produce milk. b) Hypothalamus produces anti diuretic Hormone(ADH) also known as vasopressin and keeps it in Pitutary. This helps in reabsorbing water from kidney tubules. Hypo means little or small. If ADH produced is less, then more urine is produced. This is known as Diabetes Insipidus.
B) Anterior lobe: a) This lobe produces proclatin —PRL harmone. This harmone produces milk from the breasts. b) Human growth harmone—HGH. If HGH is Hypo or less, dwarfism occurs. If it is hyper or more then gigantism occurs. c) Thyroid Stimulating Hormone—TSH: It motivates to release thyroid and thyroxin, d) Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone—ACTH: It motivates adrenal cortex. Corticosteroids are produced. Amongst them, mineral corticoids and gluco corticoids are natural anti-inflammatory cortisol androgens, e) Luteinizing Hormone—LH: This helps to ovums to come during ovulation and maintains subsequent circumstances, f) Follicle Stimulating Hormone—FSH: This is helpful for the growth and development of graffin follicles. The state prior to ovulation is the matured graffin follicle which is fluid-filled cavity. This makes the ovaries to expand. This happens once in 28 days, g) Melanin Stimulating Hormone—MSH, h)Gonadotrophins harmone: Secondary sexual characteristics i.e., breasts, beard, muscules, female tone or male tone etc., as per sex differences; these have got nothing to do with reproduction, i)interstitial cell stimulating Harmone(ICSH) : This works to produce sperm in seminiferous tubules of testes. It takes 21 days for this sperm to mature. If the sperm does not come out of penis or ejaculated within that 21 days period, this sperm will be reabsorbed in the body.
c) Interior lobe: This produces intermedin harmone: This harmone controls melanocyte production. Melanocytes produce melanin cells.
3) Pineal gland:
This gland is of peanut mass in appearance. It is like a nerve layer. Its stalk is located and enjoined with the third ventricle of brain. It is located deep within the two cerebral hemispheres, behind the skull, and just below the corpus callosum.
Pineal gland produces melatonin. This melatonin regulates the Pitutary gland. Pineal is related to biological clock of mankind. Melatonin is produced in darkness and inhibited by light. The receptors in brain react to this harmone. This makes the body ready according to day or night during 24 hours. In that process, the brain will have perception of whether it is day or night. This melatonin comes out of serotonin. This melatonin works with serotonin and regulates sleep cycle.
Melatonin helps in Conversion of Nervous System Signals to Endocrine Signals, and Influences Sexual Development.
4)Thyroid Gland: Thyroid gland is a part of Thyroid/Parathyroid gland. This is located in the throat (Visuddha chakra). Thyroid gland produces thyroxin harmone. This is related to basal metabolic rate—BMR. Calcitonin Harmone: This is related to the absorption of calcium by bones.
Hyper thyroidism means excess of thyroid. This leads to increase of BMR rate. The energy expenditure exceeds the body needs. This leads to excess heart beat, weightloss, over enthusiasm, insomania, swelling of eyes, goitre, and attention deficit disorder etc.
Hypo thyroidism means deficit of thyroid. This leads to decrease of BMR rate. The available energy decreases than the body needs. This leads to obesity, dry skin, over weight, and hair loss etc. The unavailability of proper quantity of Iodine requirement in the food is the main cause of all these problems. Even sex interest also will be affected by this deficiency of iodine in the food.
5)Parathyroid gland: Parathyroid gland is a part of Thyroid/Parathyroid gland. This is located in the throat(Visuddha chakra). This produces parathormone harmone. This is related to muscles and bones. This distributes calcium and phosphates.
Doing ‘ham’ beejakshara chanting in the throat (visuddha chakra or Cervicalplexus in the Throat of the Astral Spinal cord shall reduce and finally remove Thyroid related problems.
Hyper Parathyroid: Hyper means excess working. This leads to filtering/removal of calcium from bones and sent it to blood. The bones becomes fragile and easily break. People get osteoporosis and hence cannot walk. Functioning of parathormone harmone will be inhibited by oestrogen.
Hypo Parathyroid: Hypo means deficit working. This leads to lowering of calcium levels from blood. This causes tetany. Then skeletal muscles lose its strength and this causes cramps.
6)Thymus gland: The thymus gland is located straddled across the trachea & bronchi in the upper thorax(a bi-lobed organ in the root of the throat, above and infront of heart).
Doing ‘yam’ beejakshara chanting near the heart (ANNAHATA chakra or Dorsal in Astral Spinal cord) shall improve immune system.
Thymus gland is related to immune system. This lies in a capsule. Internally it is separated by small cross walls and contains several lobes. Not only that but also completely filled with T-lymphocytes. T-lymphocytes means white blood cells associated with antibody production.
7)Pancreas: It is loated behind the stomach. It works both as exocrine—ducted, and endocrine—ductless gland.
As an exocrine gland it leaves enzymes—organic catalysts in the small intestine through its duct. They are Pancreatic amylase, Lipase, and proteases. Pancreatic amylase breaks the carbohydrates into polysaccharides—starch into sugar. Lipase enzyme breaks fats into fatty acids and glycerol. Proteas makes protein polypeptide into di-peptides. Islets of langerhans exist in pancreas. They contain groups of both Alpha- and Beta cells. Beta cells produce insulin harmone. Conversion of glucose to glycogen, Cellular up-take of Glucose, and excess glucose into fat are the functionings of beta cells. Deficiency of insulin harmone in beta cells causes Diabetes mellitus. This causes excess of glucose levels in blood and this is known as hyperglycaemia. This gradually leads to extremely harmful health conditions. Immediate remedial treatment is required.
Meditation&chantinting of ‘ram’ beekjakshar in Manipura chakra (Lumbar) behind navel in Astral Spinal cord will ameliorate this problem.
Alpha cells in pancreas releases Glucagon harmone. Conversion of glycogen to glucose, glucose to fats are its functioning. Glucagon serves to keep blood glucose levels high enough for the body to function well.
Adrenal medulla: Adrenalin and Noradrenalin harmones are produced here. They keep the body ready for fright, fight or flight. Then changes in blood circulation in intestines, fast heart beat, breathing, and pulse rate, increase in metabolic rate, contraction and expansion in muscular movements etc will happen.
Adrenal cortex: Here Corticosteroids are produced. Glucocorticoids e.g. cortisol, cortisone, corticosterone, helps in utilization of carbohydrate, fat and protein to the body needs, makes the body to withstand stress and strain, inflammations etc.
Likewise Mineralocorticoids e.g. aldosterone are produced here. They help to maintain salt and water balance.
9) Testes: They are located outside the pelvic cavity. They produce Testosterone harmones. They help to increase male sex harmones. They create secondary sexual characteristics i.e., body hair, muscle development, voice change.
10) Ovaries: They produce Produce mature ova. They produce harmones viz., Oestrogen and Progesterone.
Blood: Blood contains plasma. This fluid is like water. 55% of blood fluid is plasma only. Cells will be floating in this blood. Blood provides the needs of the body viz., sugar, oxygen, and harmones. The wastes that come out of cells, and in the end urine, feces, sweat, carbon dioxide from lungs, are all excreted with the help of blood. Blood contains clotting agents also.
Plasma: Plasma contains water, blood cells, carbondioxide, glucose—sugar, harmones, and proteins.
Types of blood cells:
Red blood cells - They are also known as RBCs or erythrocytes. They are more in quantity in the body. Hemoglobin Hb or Hgb is a protein. It contains iron. That transports oxygen from lungs to tisuues and cells in the body.
White blood cells – leukocytes: The immune system needs them. Lymphocytes and ganulocytes are the part and parcel of white blood cells. They fight with cancer cells.
Platelets—thrombocytes: They help in clotting—coagulation of blood.
Bone marrow: Red and white blood cells, and platelets are produced in bone marrow. Bone marrow contains fats, blood, and stem cells. Spinal cord, ribs, sternum, skull, and hips contain bone marrow. When we grow old red bone marrow turns gradually into yellow.